The Bilbao Mendi Film Festival is about to enter its second decade of life. Between the 7th and the 16th of December the eleventh edition is celebrated, which, as always, is full of good mountain cinema and dozens of activities related to the mountain and adventure.
Only four expeditions in history have tried so far the only main Echomil that has ever been promoted in winter. There have only been Polish (1987-88, 2002-03 and 2017-18) and Russian (2011-12 and 2018-19) attempts, with Krzysztof Wielicki and Denis Urubko as major players to date.
The K2 (8,611 m) is the only great summit of more than 8,000 meters that has never been climbed in winter. The other colossi have been falling one by one since the eighties, first those of Nepal and then those of Pakistan, but the roof of the Karakórum remains inviolate in the coldest season of the year.
In fact, from a historical perspective, there have not been too many winter attempts to K2. Only four expeditions (3 of Polish and 1 Russian initiative) have spent winters in the base camp. Number to which will be added at least another Russian expedition this winter. Taking advantage of the fact that winter is approaching and that K2 will once again be the protagonist, let's review what happened with each of the previous expeditions.
Poles (with Canadians and British) 1987-88
The first expedition to attempt it was directed by the Polish Andrzej Zawada in the winter of 1987-1988. That team consisted of 23 mountaineers of Polish (thirteen), Canadian (six) and British (four) mountaineers. They arrived in December at base camp, where they had to dig tunnels to access their stores buried under the snow. They remained 80 days in the base camp of which they only registered ten days of good weather . They suffered freezes, some of their stores were swept by the wind and their ropes disappeared under the snow … The highest altitude they reached before retiring were the 7,300 meters of their C3, in two raids: the first on 2 March in charge of the Poles Leszek Cichy and Krysztof Wielicki and the second on March 6 starring the British Roger Mear and the Canadian Jean-François Gagnon ].
Poles (and ex-Soviets) 2002-03
Fifteen years passed until Krysztof Wielicki took charge of an expedition to return to K2 in the winter of 2002-2003. On that occasion, the team consisted of 19 mountaineers of nationality Polish (fifteen), Kazakh (two), Georgian (one) and Uzbek (one), although there were several desertions a half expedition. On this occasion, the vanguard managed to reach field 4, which they installed at 7,650 m, and was formed by the Poles Marcin Kaczkan and Piotr Morawski and the Kazakh Denis Urubko . The hurricane winds gave no respite to the expedition, which retreated after a summit attack in late February, aborted when Denis Urubko and Marcin Kaczkan discovered that C4 had flown. After spending a bad night in the emergency tent they were carrying, Kaczkan began to show symptoms of cerebral edema, which led the two climbers to back down. On their way, they met Wielicki, who came up with hot drink and medicine from C3, where he had spent the night. The three descended together and there were no more attempts.
Russians (and former Soviets) 2011-12
The third attempt, in the winter of 2011-2012, had the Russian signature of its leader Viktor Kozlov and 16 members . The very strong team progressed very well during the first month and a half of expedition. On January 31, Iljas Tukhvatullin, Andrew Mariev and Vadim Popovich managed to fix rope up to 7,200 meters. However, that same day, his companion Vitaly Gorelik was affected by frostbite on the fingers of both hands, coinciding with the arrival of bad weather. The meteorological conditions did not allow its evacuation in the following days, until finally it died and the expedition was canceled.
Permission canceled 2014-15
In 2014, the expectation skyrocketed when Denis Urubko announced that he was going to return to the winter K2 with two partners as expert as Adam Bielecki and Alex Txikon . The mountaineer (by then nationalized Russian), did not want to return to Pakistan at that time, for fear of insecurity, and chose the northern slope. However, a few days after leaving, the Chinese authorities denied the ascension permits and the expedition had to be canceled .
After the winter climb to the Nanga Parbat starring in February 2016 by Alex Txikon, Ali Sadpara and Simone Moro, all eyes were on the K2 again. It took two years for the Poles to organize a new winter expedition to the last eight-thousander slope, again led by Krzysztof Wielicki and integrated by a great team in which there were no missing stars like Adam Bielecki or Denis Urubko (now nationalized Polish ) plus eight other Polish mountaineers and five Pakistani high-altitude porters. The development of the expedition was very uneven, with express rescue in the Nanga Parbat, several accidents by falling of stones, change of route and mutiny of Denis Urubko that launched an attack alone without permission with which It marked the highest point of the expedition, around 7,600 m, where it had to turn around before the anticipated arrival of a storm. After that, Urubko left the base camp, and a few days later Krzysztof Wielicki announced the end of the expedition.
In this issue: Janhukot, persecuted first. The North Ridge of the Latok I Interview: Reinhold Messner. New Route Ushba. Sports …
By: Allen Fyffe; Andy Cunningham .
Jerry Moffatt was the best climber of the 1980s and early 1990s. No one could beat his all round performance in redpoint, onsight, boulder and competition climbing.
Together with Kurt Albert, Norbert Sandner and Wolfgang Güllich he was one of the very first to train on a Campus board. Today the Campus board is a standard tool in training power for climbing.
When it was originally developed it had a revolutionary impact on the performance of the elite climbers. Jerry not only trained on the original Campus board in Nuremberg he also worked on the design of the rungs and figured out training exercises.
When he opened the first climbing gym in the UK – “The Foundry” – it’s needless to say that he installed a Campus board there as well. He made this video in 1998.
The VHS-tape got lost before it was edited. Now in 2018 Jerry found it accidentally and Hannes Huch was the lucky bastard who could do the edit. It’s a great piece of climbing history that shows that Jerry was not only a brilliant physical performer but a profound training expert.
It gives a deep insight how to come “back to full power” and also how to use your mind to enhance your progress on the board. As Wolfgang Güllch said “your mind is your most important muscle.”
Episode one gives you precious information about the history and basics of the campus board.
On Saturday, October 20, the 12-hour Rally of Riglos Rally is celebrated. A date for lovers of these events that do not seek the competition itself but a meeting of climbers in which each rope sets its objectives.
The climb returns once again to the Mallos de Riglo s, without doubt one of the most impressive landscapes of our geography. This year the appointment changes season and is celebrated in autumn, which implies a change in the schedule: instead of the traditional 12 hours of climbing, this time will be 11 to ensure that participants have light throughout the development of the test.
The event is organized by Peña Guara and is part of the National Climbing Rally League coordinated by FEDME. The Saturday test is the last.
The X Riglos Rally is celebrated this Saturday (October 20) from 8 in the morning until 7 in the evening. The reception of participants will take place on Friday.
They are the same as other editions and are all equipped, so no floating anchors are needed. There are 36 divided between different points.
Number of cordadas:
At the moment there are 20 cordadas pointed and the term is still open.
Most frequent strategy:
Each rounds start with a different one, but the order of choice of the routes is drawn, which implies recalculating the plan if others first choose the route that one had in mind. You have to adapt and improvise. The most exciting moment is usually at the end of the rally, when the teams play the classification betting on one way or another.
How it differs from other rallies:
They are long and demanding climbs in a unique scenario. They are airways, very athletic and demanding much effort.
More information and inscriptions, here .
In this issue: Janhukot, persecuted first. The North Ridge of the Latok I Interview: Reinhold Messner. New Route Ushba. Sports …
By: Chema Agustín and Miguel Carasol .
EMBLEMATIC TOWER OF WYOMING
Retired veterinarian Bill Weber showed that age is not a brake and completed the TAD (Vº grado) in the company of his two children.
The Devil's Tower (1,558 m) is one of the most emblematic reliefs of the American state of Wyoming . Sacred place for native tribes, has the historic landmark of having been declared the first National Monument of the United States in 1906. It presents a particular formation of columns that rise about 260 meters from the base that make it in a visual reference. From the perspective of the climb, the first documented ascent dates from 1893.
Bill Weber practiced for many years of veterinarian until he retired and focused squarely on his hobby of wildlife photographer . In his comings and goings photographing animals he had frequented many times the landscapes of the surroundings of the Devil's Tower, although the trigger of his desire to climb it came by an article he read in a magazine.
It was in February of this same year, when the edition of National Parks Magazine included the news about Frank Sanders an 87-year-old climber who had broken the record of the greatest age in ascending the Devil's Tower. "An 87-year-old man? Hell, that's something I could do, I think. "Weber told himself.
It occurred to him that he could plan it by the time he turned 91 in September and so he raised it with his two sons, aged 63 and 58: "I told them we should have one last adventure and that we should be three to climb the Devil's Tower ". Years ago, Bill Weber had started his children upright, taking them to a climbing school and together they had made several camping trips to the Tetons (also in Wyoming).
They selected for the adventure the via TAD which presents a maximum difficulty of 5.7+ (approximately 5a + on the French scale) and consists of a long journey on a path with zones of climbing and about 100 meters of climbing proper .
Bill Weber already had the habit of exercising for half an hour a day, five days a week, either on his treadmill or jogging around his house. As a specific training for climbing, he added one more minute to his routine every month since May, as well as a flex. "In total, 34 minutes a day, five days a week" he tells himself.
The triplet went to the Devil's Tower a few days before the 91st birthday of Bill Weber and made a trial climb that did not go too well . The doubts were installed in the team, which took a day off before launching the final attempt.
They started the ascent at 8:00 a.m. in the morning and progressed slowly but steadily until reaching the summit at 7:40 p.m., almost 12 hours later. Then, they undertook the no less complex descent, rappelling for another nearly three hours until arriving at the base of the mountain at 10:30 pm .
"I doubted if I would be able to do it" Weber acknowledged later, "but I thought that if he would palm her while doing it, at least he would have died doing something he wanted to do" . Asked about the ratings for record obtained, Bill Weber pointed out that beyond that, what he takes are new memories with his children : "There are several, but one that has been fixed in my head happened up in the summit, I shivering on the mountain and my eldest son took off his jacket and gave it to me to put on during the descent … It was quite memorable. "
In this issue: Janhukot, persecuted first. The North Ridge of the Latok I Interview: Reinhold Messner. New Route Ushba. Sports …
- Tags: Bill Weber, Devil's Tower
October 26 to 28 in Potes
Alex Huber and Chus Lago will be the speakers in the V edition of the Lebaniega Mountain Days to be held in Potes from October 26 to 28. There will also be bouldering competition open to all, excursions, photography exhibitions and, above all, very good atmosphere in this beautiful mountain village located at the foot of the Picos de Europa.
Two great mountaineering characters, climbing, adventure and exploration, Alex Huber and Chus Lago are the lecturers in these V Lebaniega Mountain Conference .
Alex Huber opens the day s (at 20.00 on Friday 26 at the Center for Lebaniegos Studies, Potes). His lecture will be a show of experiences, ideas and motivation and, above all, e l summary of a life dedicated to living all facets of mountain climbing.
The life of Chus Lago is equally intense and rich: Everest without oxygen and South Pole alone. And what is more interesting for the audience that attends his presentation: Chus is a narrator endowed with a unique ability to transmit their experiences and memories. He has a very special sensitivity to pick up in words those unique moments lived in his life as an alpinist and explorer. (His lecture is at 19.30 on Saturday 27 at the Centro Estudios Lebaniegos, Potes)
Alex Huber the versatile climber and mountaineer
Alex speaks Spanish very well and is one of the most versatile climbers and mountaineers of the moment. His is the mythical "Rambla" (Siruana) that so many years after its opening is still the objective of the elite of the world sport climbing.
Has performed first free climbs at El Capitan (Yosemite), had the speed record of the Nose (2: 45'45 "in 2008) and of ] Zodiac (1: 51.34 in 2004) in Yosemite. First in free to routes of 8c in the great walls of Dolomites ( Bellavista 2001, and Pan Aroma 2007). He also released with his brother Thomas " Eternal Flame " to the Tower Without Name (Trango). He has made significant climbs in only integral: Swiss Direct to Grand Capucin in the Alps, the Direttissima (550m, 7a +, Cima Grande) and the "Kommunist" (8b +). He has ascended ochomiles Cho Oyu (8,201m) and made expeditions to Latok II (7,108m), Latok IV (6,545m), Cerro Torre , Torre Egger, Fitz Roy, Ulvetanna and Holtanna … In 2016 with Fabian Buhl climbed in free 'Dreams of winter' (540 m, 8a) in the Naranjo de Bulnes in 9 hours.
Alex is first of all a character full of vitality, projects and ideas and most importantly: close, humble, simple.
The other great protagonist of these Jornadas de Montaña Lebaniega is Chus Lago.
Chus Lake. From Everest to the South Pole alone
Chus Lago is a relatively unknown character in relation to the importance of the activities he has done and, above all, his ability to communicate, to transmit, his experiences. Of its many activities two are especially relevant: Everest without oxygen (in 1999) to the top, but then use it for about two hours in the descent. In January 2009 he became the first person in our country to reach the South Pole alone (with a supply), after 59 days of crossing. With 57 kilos of weight he left dragging a sledge of 113 kilos that almost doubled his weight. Finished the journey with 10 kilos less and a sleigh of 60 kilos. A phrase that sums up that experience: " I learned during my journey, that we have to go to simplicity, that we have to undress, that what spoils the adventure is ourselves ".
Open Block Valle de Liébana
Organized by Celso Martínez "Finuco", the Open Block returns to the Liébana Valley. On tomorrow of Saturday 27 classifications -from 10.30- open to all those who want to participate. At 13.30 children's climbing competition. And in the afternoon, at 17.00 it will be the grand final
And, in addition, excursions open to all
Both Saturday and Sunday are organized excursions open to all who want to participate in them . On Saturday from Barranco de Cicera to Lebeña . And on Sunday of Fuente Dé al Pico Tesorero.
- Tags: JORNADAS LIEBANA, Liébana
Recreational marijuana is legal in Canada today and many people are celebrating what some argue has been a longtime coming. Canada is the first G7 country to legalize it. Each province sets it own rules as to how it can be consumed and where it can be smoked.
Marijuana has long been part of the climbing culture. In 1977 a plane full of marijuana flying over Yosemite crashed in a lake. Climbers heard about the crash and rushed up to see what happened. They even made a T-shirt that said “I got mine at Lower Merced Pass Lake.”
The climbers walked across the frozen ice and found hundreds of bails of marijuana, which they brought back to Camp 4. The climbers smoked it, sold it and after a few months, were buying housing and cars. Watch a clip here.
The cutting-edge climbers in Yosemite during the 1970s called themselves the Stonemasters, but Lynn Hill once joked, they might have been the “stoned masters.” They smoked prodigious amounts of low-grade marijuana.
Fast forward a few decades to 2001 when Chris Sharma was stripped of his World Cup title after testing positive for THC at a competition in Europe.
Rescues for Stoners
A few years ago, group of climbers had to be rescued from the top of England’s highest mountain because they were too stoned to descend. A three-hour rescue took place on Scafell Pike because they were “incapable of walking” after smoking cannabis.
And back in Canada, North Shore Search and Rescue in B.C. is currently warning people who go to the mountains that doing so under the influence of any mind altering substance is a bad idea. Read the blog here.
North Shore Search and Rescue notes five examples involving drug use. According to them, this is just a small sample from a large list of similar incidents:
– On Cypress, a young hiker decided to take Acid while hiking with friends, had a bad trip, and required medical assistance and evacuation. Unfortunately, weather prevented helicopter access, so this was a primarily ground-based operation, and delayed the response by hours.
-Two individuals went snowshoe camping on Mount Seymour and at some point in the night, they consumed marijuana and ecstasy. One of the campers had a psychotic episode and stabbed his friend with a bowie knife, while his friend returned the favour. The RCMP emergency response team responded with our members and both snowshoers were arrested and taken to the hospital.
– On Cypress, a snowshoer consumed edible marijuana, had a seizure, and required intubation and ventilation while being evacuated. No other drugs were found in their system.
– Near Lions Bay, a hiker had consumed mushrooms and marijuana, and while going to urinate, fell 60 meters into a ravine. He sustained a serious head injury and had to be evacuated by helicopter long line.
– Two young people left a bar on Burnaby Mountain and were heavily intoxicated with alcohol. They decided to take a shortcut down the mountain through the woods. They both fell to their deaths.
The mountains are not the place to lose yourself in a drug-induced stupor, nor are they a place to experiment and learn your tolerance. The reality we face is that the wilderness is unforgiving and it can take a long time for rescue crews to reach you, even if you are only a couple kilometers up the trail.
A few years ago, Climbing Magazine conducted an anonymous survey of pro climbers and almost everyone said they smoked pot. A memorable quote from the survey is, “Smoke pot, check your knot.”
And trainingbeta.com conducted a survey and had 1,462 respondents and found the following:
- 72% of the respondents have been climbing between 1 to 8 years.
- 75% climb or train 2 to 4 days a week.
- 65% never mix climbing or training with cannabis.
- 37% are not bothered being around those who are using marijuana.
- 43% feel their comfort depends on the people who are high and the setting they are in.
- 46% responded that feeling comfortable being belayed by someone who is high depends on the person and setting.
- 6% are fine with high belayers.
- 47% are not comfortable with high belayers.
There are currently a number of high-profile athletes that have endorsement deals, like pro skier Tanner Hall who is sponsored by a cannabis company. And who can forget when Ross Rebagliati won the first ever Olympic gold medal in snowboarding in 1998 but was lost the medal after THC was discovered in his system. The drug wasn’t banned and the medal was given back.
And there are a lot of climbers who use Cannabidoil (CBD Oil), which has been proven to suppress the bodies natural inflammatory response. Read more about CBD here.
Some of you will think that you shouldn’t smoke weed and climb, and some of you might be smoking weed right now before your next session.
Remember to be responsible and stay safe. Your partner’s life is in your hands out there.
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Alpinist Ben Dare has made a solo first ascent of a 700-metre route on Mount Percy Smith in New Zealand he’s calling The Promise.
The route goes up the Southwest Face of the remote mountain near Mount Cook on the south island and goes at VI 6+(WI4 M5+ A0). It rises next to a 1993 route by Bill McLeod and Peter Dickson called Dark Shore.
This wast the first time the wall had been climbed in mixed/winter conditions even though it’s technically austral spring.
Dare wrote for the New Zealand Alpine Team’s website after. He said, “The Southwest Face is a reclusive and obscure piece of real estate. It is rarely visited, and even less frequently attempted… Prior to attempting the climb, I had only ever seen two photographs of the face. One was taken in the same year that I was born.”
Dare bivied at the base and then started up the climb. He wrote, “Following ice splattered ledges through the overhangs that guard the base of the face – the result of gradually retreating permanent snow and icefields on the valley floor. Undercutting the rock, leaving it to defy the pull of gravity as it teeters precariously. Rock that lives up to all expectations, and not in a good way.”
Dare said he “aimed for a solitary gendarme silhouetted on the skyline.” The ice worsened as he neared the top.
“Slowly broken down by the recent warm temperatures, it clung defiantly to the rock beneath,” he wrote. “Tentatively adhered with the last grasp of a dying winter. Pushed right by the leaning strata, haphazardly stacked layers of weathered and friable Greywacke.” Read the full story here.
Dare is no stranger to bold first ascent solos, in November of 2017, he soloed the 550-metre Remembrance on Aoraki.
In 2014, Dare and Daniel Joll made first ascent on Mount Aspiring, watch in the video below.
On October 16, 1986, Reinhold Messner became the first to complete the ascents to the 14 eight-thousanders of the planet. The Surtropolian mountaineer made that summit day in Lhotse (8,516 m) with Hans Kammerlander and closed a chapter that had started tragically in 1970 with the ascent to Nanga Parbat (8,125 m) and the death of his brother Günther during the descent.
Exactly 32 years have passed since the achievement of Messner, made of course without the use of bottled oxygen and with half a dozen new routes, but the memory in the collective imaginary of the world of mountaineering has remained unforgettable. We take advantage of the circumstance to review the trajectory of the recognized as the greatest mountaineer of all time.
A voracious pioneer
No one better than Reinhold Messner fits the name of pioneer. Throughout his life he has shown himself as a character ahead of his time and has starred innumerable 'first'. Not only was he the first to complete the fourteen eight-thousanders, but he was also the first to do so without oxygen, the first to climb Everest without oxygen, the same as Gasherbrum I and Manaslu, the first to climb Everest alone, the first to apply the alpine style in the eight-thousanders, the first to climb two eight-thousances in a row without going through the base camp and the first on at least half a dozen routes in peaks such as Gasherbrum I, Nanga Parbat, Everest, Kangchenjunga and Annapurna, where has launched such emblematic watersheds as the Rupal del Nanga Parbat, the southwest face of Manaslu or the northwest of Annapurna.
In addition, Reinhold Messner is marked by a voracious personality, an unlimited ambition that leads him to consider creative goals and sometimes seemingly impossible without rest, to undertake them almost with anxiety and to fulfill them one after the other. Beyond the eight thousand, he also made the Seven Summits (he was the second in the list that includes the Carstenz Pyramid, which he proposed), crossed the Antarctic without support, has written a huge amount of books on mountain and mountaineering, has opened a network of six mountain museums and has even been elected member of the European Parliament by the Italian environmentalist Federazione dei Verdi.
The 14 × 8000
Reinhold Messner's career in the eight-thousanders began in 1970, when at the age of 25 he enrolled with his younger brother Günther Messner (23) in his first major expedition to Nanga Parbat (8,125 m). In a definite attack on the summit with some controversy with the head of expedition, Karl Maria Herrligkoffer, the Messner brothers reached the top, climbing for the first time the Rupal slope, hitherto unpublished . Then, they began the descent by the slope of the Diamir and Reinhold Messner also completed the first crossing of this Ochomil although he paid a tragic toll with the death of his brother during the descent.
In 1972, Reinhold Messner returned to the Himalayas, to face the unspoiled southwest face of the Manaslu (8,163 m), where he signed his second route to an eight-thousander and also became the first person in climbing Manaslu without oxygen . He was the only one to reach the summit and during the descent in full fog two of his expedition partners disappeared: Frank Jäger and Andi Schlick.
The year 1975 marks the beginning of what Reinhold Messner has called "the mountaineering of renunciation", an embryo of the Alpine style in the Himalayas that renounces many of the material and human resources of the usual heavy style in the expeditions of The time. He also premiered his association with the Austrian Peter Habeler. Both performed the first ascent without oxygen from Gasherbrum I (8,080 m).
In 1978, Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler became world-famous heroes by ascending for the first time Everest (8,848 m) without oxygen something that even medical sources considered impossible for man. Later that year, Reinhold Messner returned to the side of Diamir del Nanga Parbat, where his brother had disappeared eight years earlier, and performed the first solo ascension of an eight-thousander from base camp for a new route that still awaits the first repetition .
In 1979 it was the turn of K2 (8,611 m), which Reinhold Messner had planned to try for the Magic Line . However, the bad conditions led him to the Ram of the Abruzzos which finally ascended with the German Michael Dacher .
In 1980, Reinhold Messner starred in one of the greatest exploits of his career, with his solo ascent and without oxygen from Everest in full monsoon season, through a new route through The North Face .
In 1981, Reinhold Messner added to his growing list of eight thousand the summit of Shisha Pangma (8,027 m), which reached with Friedl Mutschlechner under bad weather conditions.
In 1982, Reinhold Messner became the first person to climb three eight-thousanders in the same year. In spring, it reached the summit of Kanchenjunga (8,586 m) through a new variant on the north face, with Friedl Mutschlechner and Ang Dorje . An infection in the liver weakened him alarmingly during the descent, which he could only complete thanks to the help of a Mutschlechner with severe frostbite. After rest and cure of his condition in Nepal, Messner went directly to Pakistan and although he could not face the new routes he intended given the absence of a high-level companion like Mutschlechner (who had returned to Europe), he kept his goals and consecutively ascended the Gasherbrum II (8.034 m) and the Broad Peak (8.051 m) – the latter by a variant of the normal route -, with the Pakistani Sher Khan and Nazir Sabir.
In 1983, Reinhold Messner started the last phase of the 14 × 8000 with a new strong partner, very technically gifted and 12 years younger than him, also Surtropolés Hans Kammerlander . In winter, Messner tried the first winter of Cho Oyu (8,188 m) without success, but returned in the spring with Kammerlander and Michael Dacher to reach the summit through one partially new route .
Although he had already promoted them in 1975 and 1982, respectively, Reinhold Messner returned in 1984 to the massif of the Gasherbrums and made the first linked ascent of two eight-thousanders without going down to the base camp, with Hans Kammerlander .
In 1985, Reinhold Messner and Hans Kammerlander opened the northwestern face of the Annapurna (8,091 m), although the heavy snowfall that unfolded on the descent forced them to be assisted by their expedition partners Reinhard Patscheider , Reinhard Schiestl and Swami Prem Darshano. Three weeks later, Reinhold Messner and Hans Kammerlander also reached summit in the Dhaulagiri (8,167 m), by the normal route.
In the autumn of 1986, while Jerzy Kukuczka was sprinting for the eight thousand that had led him to ascend six (Dhaulagiri, Cho Oyu, Nanga Parbat, Kangchenjunga, K2 and Manaslu) since the winter of 1985, Reinhold Messner worked hard on Complete your Payroll of the Fourteen. The first challenge was the Makalu (8,485 m), which Messner had tried unsuccessfully on three previous occasions (1974, 1981 and winter of 1986). With Hans Kammerlander and Friedl Mutschlechner, they launched two summit attempts in which they had to turn around before the third, which was the final and took them to the top by the normal route on September 26, in an expedition in which Marcel died Rüedi. A helicopter moved the mountaineers from the base camp of Makalu to the base camp of Lhotse, which Reinhold Messner and Hans Kammerlander climbed on October 16 through the normal route.
- Tags: Reinhold Messner